Last week, California legalized recreational marijuana. So did Maine, Nevada, and Massachusetts, and four other states passed medical-marijuana laws: Arkansas, Florida, Montana, and North Dakota.
It marked the end of prohibition as we know it, which didn’t work for alcohol and doesn’t work for pot. Too many millions of people enjoy it responsibly or know others who do, and it’s safer than alcohol or tobacco. As a much-beloved sportscaster used to say, the game’s now in the refrigerator; the door’s closed, the light’s out, the eggs are cooling, the butter’s getting hard, and the Jell-O is a-jigglin’. Hopefully, Uncle Sam does the right thing, too.
Through Proposition 64, California voters enacted the Control, Regulate, and Tax Adult Use of Marijuana Act of 2016. It’s called the Adult Use of Marijuana Act for short. For a deep dive on the issues, see the state’s official voter guide to the election. It’s a big file, but a summary of Prop 64 starts on page 90, and the full text follows on page 178.
What do you need to know right now? These six things.
It legalized recreational marijuana for adults age 21 or older. You may now grow up to six plants on your property, and you may buy or possess up to 28.5 grams of cannabis, which is an ounce, or eight grams of concentrated cannabis.
It taxes the sale and cultivation of marijuana. It imposes an excise tax of 15% on retailers, on top of existing state and local sales taxes, as well as a cultivation tax on growers of $9.25 per ounce of flower and $2.75 per ounce of leaf. It will generate billions of dollars in tax revenue in the coming years, and it will save millions of dollars in costs to law enforcement.
It imposes standards on the testing, labeling, packaging, and marketing of marijuana. It prohibits marketing to minors, and it bars shops from operating within 600 feet of a school, daycare center, or youth center unless the local government approves. It also bars them from selling alcohol or tobacco.
It continues to punish those who use, grow, or sell outside the rules. It’s a misdemeanor to have more than 28.5 grams, grow more than six plants, or sell without a license. It’s punishable by up to six months in county jail, a $500 fine, or both, and you’re subject to large civil monetary penalties for each day you’re in business. Or you could face a felony based on your criminal history, your selling to or employing underage people, or the environmental impact of your unlicensed grow. Separate penalties continue to apply to minors and people age 18 to 21. Finally, you can’t use pot on the road, in a public place (except for shops that allow it), or anywhere that you can’t use tobacco.
It allows people to petition to clear their records. If you’re currently serving or have ever served a sentence for an eligible marijuana offense, you can petition the court to reduce your conviction and sentence or dismiss your case entirely. The court will presume that you’re entitled to this relief unless prosecutors prove by clear and convincing evidence that you’re not. If they can’t, the court will grant your petition unless it finds that doing so would endanger public safety. Many counties have already prepared to process these petitions.
The state will tax, license, and regulate marijuana businesses, and it will issue its first licenses by January 1, 2018. Cities and counties may further tax or regulate the industry or just ban it outright (but not ban its transportation through their jurisdiction). The main state agencies are as follows:
- The Bureau of Marijuana Control (formerly the Bureau of Medical Cannabis Regulation): to license and regulate retailers, distributors, and testing facilities
- The Department of Food and Agriculture: to license and regulate growers
- The Department of Public Health: to license and regulate edibles
- The Department of Fish and Wildlife: to regulate the environmental impacts of growing
- The State Water Resources Control Board: to regulate the environmental impacts of growing on water quality
- The Department of Pesticide Regulation: to regulate the use of pesticides in growing
- The Marijuana Control Appeals Panel: to hear appeals from people and businesses affected by an agency’s decision